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See, Don’t dither on Section 377, as available on http://www.hindu.com/2009/07/01/stories/2009070155550800.htm as accessed on 7th July at 9:40 IST.

See, Wolfenden Report, as available on http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/wolfenden_report.html as accessed on July 14, 2009 at 12:45 IST.

Naz Foundation v. Government of NCT of Delhi and Others, 160 (2009) DLT 277.

Lawrence v. Texas, 2003 (539) US 558.

See, Why should homosexuality be a crime?, as available on http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/cms.dll/html/uncomp/articleshow?msid=187403 accessed on 4 July 2009 at 13:16 IST.

See, Manu Smriti, chapter 8, verse 370.

See, Manu Smriti, chapter 8, verse 369.

See, Manu Smriti, chapter 11, verse 68.

See, Manu Smriti, chapter 11, verse 175.

Wilhelm, Amara Das, Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex, pp. 267, 334. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation, 2003; See also, Sushruta Samhita, 3.2.42-43.

Supra note 5, ¶ 24 & 40.

Supra note 5, ¶ 93.

Id., ¶ 99.

Supra note 5, ¶ 93.

Infra note 20.

Supra note 5, ¶ 1.

Ajay Goswami v. Union of India, 2007 SCC 143.

Suresh Kumar Kaushal v. Naz Foundation SLP(C) No.15436/2009.

All India Muslim Personal Law Board Moves SC Over Legalising Homosexuality, http://www.indlawnews.com/NewsDisplay.aspx?87bd3cbf-f0d2-40b8-9df0-b9bac18e82a0 as accessed on 26 March, 2010 at 16:20 IST.

Shyam Benegal approaches SC to voice gay rights, www.newkerala.com/news/fullnews-56475.html as accessed on 28 March, 2010 at 13:50 IST.

US Court Allows Washington, DC Same Sex Marriages,

http://www.indlawnews.com/NewsDisplay.aspx?8EE92D31-911B-436E-98F7-B98BD023FF52 as accessed on 25 March, 2010 at 17:23 IST. See also, www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE62155V20100302. 537 U.S. 1102.


Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U. S. 186.

537 U.S. 1102.

Supra note 27 at p.1.

S. 377. Unnatural offences.--Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Supra note 5, ¶ 24.

Protection of life and personal liberty.—No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, (1978) 1 SCC 248.

Egan v. Canada, (1995) 29 CRR (2nd) 79 at 106.

Prem Shankar Shukla v Delhi Administration, AIR 1980 SC 1535.


Supra Note 5.


Refer, US Supreme Court Judgment in Lawrence v. Texas, supra note 5.

AIR 1963 SC 1295.

AIR 1975 SC 1378.

AIR 1993 SC 2178.

(1998) 8 SCC 296.

Supra Note 5.

See, Japan allows its citizens same-sex marriage abroad, as available on http://www.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Asia/Story/A1Story20090327-131607.html as accessed on 7 July, 2009 at 14:57 IST.

See, Ministry Clears Path to Same-Sex Marriage available at http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20090328a2.html as accessed on September 4, 2009 at 14:56 IST. Id.

See, In precedent-setting ruling court says state must recognize gay marriage, as available on http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasen/spages/790724.html as accessed on 8 July, 2009 at 18:47 IST.

See, Same-Sex Marriage Over Time, available at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=235 as accessed on September 4, 2009 at 13:24 ISt.

See, Public opinion and same-sex unions, as available on http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/is
2003 as accessed on 4 July, 2009 at 11:47 IST.

See, ‘Gay Marriage’: Civil Partnerships for Same-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom, as available on http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/1/7/0/6/p117063_index.html accessed on 6 July, 2009 at 16:40 IST.

See, Same Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships, as available on http://www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/HumanServices/SameSexMarriage/ as accessed on September 5, 2009 at 12:34 IST.

See, Same Sex Marriage Overview, as available on http://www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/HumanServices/SameSexMarriage/tabid/16430/Default
as accessed on September 5, 2009 at 20:30 IST.



See, TIMELINE - Same Sex Marriage, as available on http://www.ncsl.org/Default.aspx?TabId=4243 as accessed on September 5, 2009 at 15:56 IST.

Varnum v. Brien, 763 N.W.2d 862, (Ia. 2009)

539 US 558 (2003).

Id. at p. 567.

Id. at p. 571.

Langemaat v. Minister of Safety and Security 1998 (7) SA 312 (T); National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice 1999 (1) SA 6 (CC) (‘the National Coalition sodomy case’); National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Home Affairs 2000 (2) SA 1 (CC) (‘the National Coalition immigration case’); Satchwell v President of South Africa 2002 (6) SA 1 (CC); Du Toit v Minister of Population and Welfare Development 2003 (2) SA 198 (CC); J v Minister of Home Affairs 2003 (5) SA 621 (CC).

See, Same-sex marriages given blessing by South Africa, as available on http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article744695.ece as accessed on 6 July, 2009 at 16:40 IST.

See, The Case Against Margaret Somerville, as available on http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/homosexuality/ho0063.html as accessed on 6 July, 2009 at 17:10 IST.

See, Same Sex Marriage: Is It The Time For Legal Recognition, as available on http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/semar.htm as accessed on 5 July, 2009 at 13:10 IST.


Supra note 23.

Supra note 5.

See, Should Same-Sex Marriages be Legalized?, as available on http://www.balancedpolitics.org/same_sex_marriages.htm as accessed on 9 July, 2009 at 12:48 IST.

Kerry Williams, ‘I Do’ Or ‘We Won’t’: Legalising Same-Sex Marriage In South Africa, (2004) 20 SAJHR 32.

See, Hearts on Fire, as available on http://cmpage.org/documents/homosexual_lifestyle.htm as accessed on September 6, 2009 at 10:40 IST.

Supra note 5.
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